HomeTripod Stability And Vibration DampingSpiked FeetHow Do Spiked Feet Provide Better Traction? The Science Behind It

How Do Spiked Feet Provide Better Traction? The Science Behind It

We’ve all experienced situations where it feels like our feet just can’t grip the ground properly, whether it’s trying to keep balance on a slippery surface or struggling to climb a steep incline. But what if we could enhance our feet’s ability to provide better traction and stability? Enter spiked feet. Yes, you heard it right. Spiked feet have been developed to ensure that the wearer can achieve superior grip and avoid slipping on various surfaces. In this article, we will delve into the science behind spiked feet, how they work, and their benefits. We’ll also explore the various applications of spiked feet across different industries and provide tips on choosing and maintaining spiked footwear for optimal performance.

Why Do We Need Traction?

Why Do We Need Traction?
Having the proper traction is crucial to staying safe and performing well in a variety of activities. Whether it’s hiking a steep mountain or playing a sport, the right footwear can make all the difference. Without the proper traction, it can be easy to slip and fall, resulting in serious injury. On the other hand, with the right spiked feet, the added grip and stability can propel you towards success. In the next sections, we will explore the importance of traction and how spiked feet provide a solution. For more information on stability and the role of spiked feet check out Understanding Spiked Feet and Stability.

Importance of Traction

The importance of traction cannot be overstated, especially in situations where one’s safety or success depends on staying on one’s feet. Traction refers to the ability of a person’s footwear to grip onto the ground or other surface. It is essential for maintaining balance and stability while walking or running, and can be the difference between a successful ascent up a steep mountain or a crippling fall.

Without proper traction, many activities would be impossible, and others would be downright dangerous. Athletes, for example, rely on traction to make quick turns and sudden stops without slipping or sliding, while hikers and mountaineers rely on it to maintain their footing on uneven and often treacherous terrain. In industrial and military applications, where workers may need to move quickly and efficiently across a range of surfaces, traction is critical for both safety and productivity.

Poor traction, on the other hand, can have serious consequences. A worker who slips on a wet floor can suffer a debilitating injury, while a hiker who loses their footing on a steep incline can fall to their death. In some cases, poor traction may even pose a risk to others. For example, a player on a soccer field who cannot maintain their footing risks injuring themselves, as well as other players who may collide with them.

It is important to make sure that you have the right footwear for the job, with adequate traction to meet your needs. This may involve investing in specialized footwear with spiked or cleated soles, or simply ensuring that your existing footwear is maintained and in good condition. Ultimately, choosing the right footwear and maintaining it properly can be the difference between success and failure, both on and off the field.

To learn more about the pros and cons of spiked feet, check out our article on spiked feet for tripods. For tips on how to clean and maintain your spiked feet, see our article on cleaning and maintaining spiked feet. And if you’re feeling handy, you might even want to try making your own spiked feet with our DIY spiked feet tutorial.

Dangers of Poor Traction

Poor traction can have serious negative consequences in various scenarios. It can lead to accidents, injuries, or even fatalities. Here are some of the dangers of poor traction:

Danger Description
Slipping When there is no adequate grip on the surface, slipping can occur, causing falls and injuries.
Reduced Stability Poor traction reduces stability, making it more difficult to maintain balance and move around safely.
Slower Performance Without proper grip, movements become less efficient, and performance slows down.
Impaired Accuracy In certain activities that require precision and accuracy such as archery, hunting, or photography, poor traction can interfere with the ability to aim and hit targets.
Increased Fatigue and Strain When the feet are unable to grip the surface effectively, more effort is required to maintain balance and move around. This can lead to increased fatigue and strain on the body.
Higher Risk of Injury Poor traction increases the risk of injury and accidents, especially in fast-paced activities that involve sudden changes in direction or elevation.

Given these potential consequences, it’s clear that having proper footwear with spiked feet is crucial, especially in situations where traction is a priority. To learn more about the benefits of spiked feet and how they work, continue reading this article.

How Spiked Feet Work

How Spiked Feet Work
Have you ever wondered how athletes or hikers maintain their grip and balance on slippery surfaces like wet grass or muddy trails? The secret lies in the use of spiked footwear. Spiked feet, also known as cleats or studs, are designed to provide better traction by increasing the contact between the foot and the ground. But how exactly do spiked feet work, and why are they so effective? Let’s dive into the science behind it.

How Do Spikes Work?

Spikes, also known as cleats or studs, work by increasing the surface area in contact with the ground, which provides better traction. The spikes on the sole of the footwear penetrate the surface material, such as grass, dirt or ice, and anchor the foot, preventing slipping and sliding. The depth of the spikes depends on the intended use of the footwear.

Here are some ways in which spikes help in providing better traction:

  • Increased friction: When the spikes are pressed into the surface, they create more friction between the surface and the spike, which helps to reduce slipping.
  • Debris removal: Spikes dig into the ground and help in removing debris, such as mud or loose ground, which helps to maintain traction.
  • Weight distribution: Spikes help in distributing the weight of the wearer over a larger area, reducing the pressure on any specific area and increasing stability.
  • Force absorption: Spikes on footwear also help in absorbing the force exerted by the wearer’s body weight, especially during activities like running, jumping or cutting movements.
  • Directional control: By providing better grip and stability, spikes also help in improving the wearer’s directional control, allowing them to move and change direction more quickly and efficiently.

The placement and size of the spikes also play a crucial role in how well they work. Different types of spikes are designed for specific surfaces and activities, and may vary in size, shape, material, and number of spikes. It is important to choose the right type of spikes for the intended use to get the best traction and prevent injury.

Types of Spikes

When it comes to spiked feet, there are several different types of spikes available, each with its own unique characteristics and advantages. These spikes can be categorized according to their shape, size, and material. Here are some common types of spikes:

  • Pyramid spikes: These are the most common type of spikes and are shaped like a pyramid. They are typically made of metal and provide excellent traction on both dry and wet surfaces.
  • Needle spikes: These are long and thin spikes that are ideal for running on soft surfaces such as grass or dirt. They are made of hard plastic or metal and are less aggressive than pyramid spikes, but provide good traction on soft surfaces.
  • Bladed spikes: These spikes are curved and resemble a blade. They are designed to provide maximum grip on soft, muddy surfaces by cutting into the ground. They are typically used in cross-country running events.
  • Christmas tree spikes: These spikes are shaped like a Christmas tree and are designed for running on synthetic tracks. They are made of hard plastic and provide excellent traction on artificial surfaces.
  • Screw-in spikes: These spikes are designed to be screwed into the bottom of a shoe. They are typically made of metal and are available in various lengths to suit different types of terrain.
  • Waffle spikes: These spikes are designed for cross-country running and have a waffle-like pattern on the sole for better grip. They are typically made of rubber and are less aggressive than pyramid spikes.
  • Ice spikes: These spikes are designed for running on icy or slippery surfaces. They are typically made of tungsten carbide and are very sharp to provide good traction on ice.

Choosing the right type of spikes depends on the activity and the terrain. Pyramid spikes are a good all-around choice for track and field events, while bladed spikes are ideal for cross-country running. Screw-in spikes are versatile and can be adjusted to suit different types of terrain, while ice spikes are essential for running on icy surfaces. It’s important to consider the conditions and choose the appropriate type of spike for optimal performance and safety.

Benefits of Spiked Feet

Benefits Of Spiked Feet
Have you ever wondered how professional athletes manage to have such amazing stability and grip, even in the wettest and slipperiest conditions? The secret lies in their footwear. Spiked feet have become increasingly popular in recent years, and for good reason too. They offer a range of benefits that improve one’s overall performance on any terrain. From better stability to increased speed and agility, the advantages of this kind of footwear are numerous. Let’s delve deeper into how spiked feet work and the benefits they bring.

Improved Stability

Spiked feet provide improved stability to the wearer. This is achieved by the spikes digging into the ground or uneven surfaces, creating a greater contact area between the wearer’s feet and the ground. This increased contact area reduces the chances of slipping or losing balance, especially when navigating through rough terrain.

In addition to increasing the contact area, spiked feet also have a wider base than regular footwear. This wider base provides a stronger foundation to support the wearer’s weight, further improving stability.

To illustrate the difference in stability between spiked feet and regular footwear, we can compare the two using a table:

Regular Footwear Spiked Feet
Contact Area Small, flat surface Large, multi-point surface
Base Width Narrow Wider
Stability Lower Higher

As shown in the table, spiked feet provide a higher level of stability due to their larger contact area and wider base. This makes them a preferred choice for activities that require sure footing, such as hiking, mountaineering, and athletics.

Better Grip

When it comes to traction, one of the most important factors is the grip. Spiked feet provide a better grip than traditional footwear due to the design of the spikes themselves. The spikes are strategically placed on the sole of the shoes to provide maximum grip on different types of terrain.

Here are some of the advantages of spiked feet in terms of grip:

Advantages Explanation
Increased Friction The spikes on the sole of the shoes create more friction between the shoe and the ground, which increases grip.
Better Traction The spikes on the sole of the shoes dig into the surface, providing a better grip and reducing the chance of slipping.
Improved Stability With better grip comes improved stability. Spiked feet can help you maintain your balance on uneven surfaces, reducing the risk of injury.
More Control The increased grip and stability provided by spiked feet give you more control over your movements, allowing you to move faster and more confidently.

Spiked feet provide a much better grip than traditional footwear, making them ideal for activities that require stability and control, such as hiking, climbing, and sports. However, it is important to choose the right type of spiked footwear for the activity you plan to engage in, as different types of spikes are suitable for different terrains.

Increased Speed and Agility

Spiked feet offer well-known benefits for improving one’s speed and agility. The spikes help to increase the contact area between the feet and the ground, thus allowing for a more efficient push-off with each step. This increased push-off power translates into greater speed and explosiveness in athletic activities such as sprinting and high-jumping.

Additionally, spiked feet can improve agility by providing better traction and grip on uneven terrain. This is especially important in sports that require quick changes of direction, such as soccer or basketball. The enhanced grip helps athletes make more precise movements without slipping or losing balance.

Here are some additional ways spiked feet can increase speed and agility:

  • Reduced Slippage: Spiked feet can help reduce slippage on wet or slippery surfaces, giving athletes more confidence to run at top speed without worrying about falls or injuries.
  • Efficient Foot Placement: The spikes on the bottom of the shoes encourage athletes to place their feet more efficiently, with the forefoot landing first and the heel following in a more natural motion. This efficient foot placement helps reduce the risk of injury and promote faster running.
  • Greater Power Output: The spikes on the bottom of the shoes allow athletes to exert a greater amount of power with each step, leading to faster acceleration and greater speed over long distances.
  • Better Balance and Stability: The spikes create a stable base for the feet, preventing them from slipping or sliding during high-speed movements. This improved balance and stability can help athletes maintain proper form and technique, leading to fewer injuries and faster times.

Spiked feet are a valuable tool for athletes looking to improve their speed and agility. By providing better traction, grip, and power, spiked feet can help athletes achieve their peak performance and reach new levels of athleticism.

Applications of Spiked Feet

Applications Of Spiked Feet
Spiked feet have a variety of practical applications, making them a versatile tool for different fields. These durable and effective footwear designs are especially popular in athletic and outdoor settings, but they also have industrial and military uses. Knowing the specific applications of spiked feet can help you choose the right type of footwear for your needs. Let’s take a closer look at how spiked feet are used in athletics, hiking and mountaineering, as well as in industrial and military environments.


Athletes in various sports rely on traction to perform at their highest level, and spiked feet are an excellent way to gain that much-needed grip. Without proper traction, athletes risk slipping and injuring themselves, as well as hindering their overall performance. Here are some key sports that benefit from spiked footwear:

  • Track and Field: Sprinters use spiked shoes with highly rigid spikes to provide exceptional traction when pushing off the starting blocks. Long distance runners prefer fewer and longer spikes as they provide more stability on endurance runs.
  • Football: Football players wear spiked cleats to gain better traction while running, cutting, and stopping on the field. The spikes help them maintain their footing on the grassy turf and avoid slipping, which can lead to injury.
  • Soccer: Soccer players also wear cleats with studs or spikes for improved grip on the grassy field. The spikes help them make sudden movements like cuts and turns, which are essential in this sport.
  • Golf: Golf shoes typically have plastic or metal spikes to provide stability and traction on the course. The spikes allow golfers to maintain balance and securely plant their feet during their swing.
  • Baseball: Baseball cleats have metal or rubber spikes on the outsole to help players grip the ground when running, stopping, and making quick turns on the base paths.

Spiked footwear has become an essential tool for many athletes in various sports. By providing improved traction, they help athletes perform at their best, avoid injury, and achieve their goals on the playing field.

Hiking and Mountaineering

When it comes to hiking and mountaineering, spiked feet become essential to ensure safety and stability during the journey. Hiking and mountaineering often involve traversing through rough, steep and slippery terrains, and without the right footwear, the hiker can face serious injuries from slips and falls.

Spiked feet, in the form of crampons, are specifically designed for hiking and mountaineering. It is important to choose the right type of spiked footwear according to the terrain, as the wrong type can cause damage to the environment and be unsafe.

Types of Spiked Footwear for Hiking and Mountaineering

Type of Spiked Footwear Terrain Advantages
Crampons Snow and ice Excellent traction on slippery surfaces.
Microspikes Icy and packed snow Lightweight and versatile for various terrains.
Trail shoes with studs Wet or muddy trails Provide extra grip on slippery surfaces and prevent mud buildup.
Shoes with thick lugs Rocky and uneven terrains Provide stability and prevent slips on rocky surfaces.

Hikers and mountaineers should consider several factors when choosing the right type of spiked footwear for their journey. The terrain, weather conditions, and duration of the hike should be taken into account. It is also important to check the compatibility of the footwear with the type of hiking equipment, such as the hiking boots and ice axe.

It is equally important to maintain and replace spiked feet regularly to ensure their effectiveness and safety. Hikers and mountaineers should inspect the spikes for wear and tear before every hike and replace them when necessary.

Spiked feet are crucial for hikers and mountaineers to navigate through challenging terrains safely and enjoyably. With careful consideration and proper maintenance, spiked footwear can enhance the hiking and mountaineering experience and prevent accidents.

Industrial and Military

Spiked feet are not just useful for athletics and outdoor adventures, but they also have a wide range of applications in industrial and military settings. Here are some examples of how spiked feet are being utilized in these arenas:

  • Construction Workers: Individuals working in construction sites, particularly those working on roofs, use spiked boots to prevent slipping and falling from heights. These boots ensure better footing on different types of surfaces, including wet and uneven ones.
  • Military Personnel: Soldiers often require secure footing when they are operating in difficult terrains, whether it be during training exercises or in actual combat. Spiked boots provide them with better traction, which is critical to their safety and success.
  • Oil Rig Workers: Workers in the oil industry operate in extremely slippery and hazardous environments. Spiked feet provide them with the necessary stability to walk on rig decks, drilling platforms, and other slippery surfaces without slipping or falling.
  • Loggers: Logging involves cutting down trees and hauling them across rough terrains. Spiked boots, especially those with longer and sharper spikes, enable loggers to traverse through dense forests with ease.
  • Warehouse Workers: Workers in warehouses often have to move heavy goods around on slippery, polished floors. Spiked boots provide them with better grip and prevent slips and falls while they lift and move around heavy goods.

Spiked feet have been designed for practical application in a variety of settings, from sports to military, and from construction sites to warehouses. This versatile footwear is an essential component of personal protective equipment for professionals who need safe footing while working in hazardous environments.

How to Choose the Right Spiked Footwear

How To Choose The Right Spiked Footwear
As the popularity of spiked footwear continues to grow, choosing the right pair can be a confusing task. With so many options available, it can be challenging to know which one is the right choice for your needs. However, by considering several important factors and understanding the types of spiked footwear available, you can make an informed decision and get the most out of your purchase. Let’s explore these factors and uncover the best spiked footwear options for you.

Factors to Consider

When choosing spiked footwear, there are several factors to consider to ensure the right fit for your needs:

  • Activity type: Different activities require different types of spikes. For example, long spikes are ideal for running on loose dirt or grass, while shorter spikes are better for indoor track events.
  • Surface: Consider the surface you will be using the spikes on. Some surfaces, like asphalt, may wear down spikes more quickly. In contrast, softer surfaces like soil or grass may require longer spikes for better traction.
  • Foot type: Certain spikes may be more comfortable for individuals with certain types of feet. It is important to try on different models to determine the right fit for your foot type.
  • Budget: Spiked footwear can range from budget-friendly to quite expensive. Consider your budget and how often you will use the spiked shoes before making a final decision.
  • Brand reputation: Do some research and read reviews to determine which brands have a reputation for producing quality spiked footwear.

By considering these factors, you can make a more informed decision when selecting the right spiked footwear for your needs.

Types of Spiked Footwear

When it comes to spiked footwear, there are various types available in the market. Each of these shoes has its own set of spikes, which provides traction on different terrains. Here are some of the most common types of spiked footwear.

  • Track spikes: These spikes are designed for track and field events, such as sprinting, hurdles, and long-distance running. They typically have short, pyramid-shaped spikes, which provide excellent grip on a track.
  • Cross-country spikes: Cross-country spikes are longer than track spikes and have a more aggressive design. They are built for running on rough terrain, such as dirt or grass, and are ideal for cross-country races.
  • Football shoes: Football shoes have spikes on their soles to provide better traction on the grassy field. The spikes on football shoes are often made of rubber or plastic, so they don’t damage the playing surface.
  • Hiking boots: Hiking boots come with metal spikes that protect the wearer from slipping on rocky terrain. These spikes are typically located on the bottom of the boots and provide excellent grip on steep inclines.
  • Golf shoes: Golf shoes come with spikes on the soles to help golfers maintain their footing on the grassy course. These spikes are usually made of plastic or metal and are removable, allowing golfers to replace them or use different types of spikes depending on the course’s conditions.
  • Climbing shoes: Climbing shoes have special spikes made of rubber or plastic that provide grip on rocky surfaces. These spikes are designed to be thin and flexible, allowing climbers to feel the surface of the rocks and maintain precise footwork.

When choosing the right type of spiked footwear, it’s important to consider the activity you’ll be doing and the terrain you’ll be on. Each type of spiked footwear is designed to provide the best traction for specific situations, so it’s essential to choose the one that meets your needs.

Maintaining and Replacing Spiked Feet

Maintaining And Replacing Spiked Feet
After investing in spiked footwear, it is essential to maintain and replace them regularly to ensure their longevity and effectiveness.

Maintenance of Spiked Feet:
To maintain the spiked feet, it is necessary to clean them after every use. Use a soft-bristled brush to remove any dirt or debris that may have accumulated between the spikes. Soaking the footwear in warm soapy water can also help to loosen any stuck-on dirt. Rinse them thoroughly and let them dry naturally. Do not use a dryer or other heating methods to speed up the process as it could damage the spikes or the shoe material.

Replacing Spiked Feet:
The lifecycle of spiked feet depends on the frequency of usage and the type of activity they are used for. Avid athletes or hikers may need to replace their spiked feet more frequently than someone who uses them occasionally for casual walking. As the spikes become worn down or damaged, they can lose their grip, making them less effective.

There are two options for replacing spiked feet: replace the spikes or replace the entire footwear. Replacing the spikes can be a cost-effective option if the shoe material is still in good condition. Most manufacturers offer spike replacement kits that can be easily installed at home with minimal tools. However, if the shoe material is also damaged, it may be more practical to replace the entire footwear.

It is important to note that spiked feet should be replaced before they become completely worn out to avoid any safety hazards. A shoe with worn-out spikes can be ineffective in providing traction and can lead to slips and falls, which could result in serious injury.

Taking care of spiked feet and replacing them regularly is essential to ensure the best possible traction and stability. Proper maintenance and replacement can significantly increase the lifespan of the footwear and save the cost of premature replacements or medical bills from potential accidents caused by worn-out spikes.

Cautions and Risks

As with any type of equipment, using spiked feet comes with potential hazards and risks. It’s important to take precautions and handle them with care to prevent any accidents. Understanding the possible dangers and environmental impacts of spiked feet is crucial before considering their use. Let’s take a closer look at some of the cautions and risks involved.

Environmental Damage

Environmental Damage caused by spiked feet is a significant concern that needs to be addressed. While these types of footwear provide better traction in various applications, they can also be damaging to the environment if not used correctly. Here are some of the ways in which the environment can be negatively affected by spiked feet usage:

Environmental Issue Description
Soil Erosion Spiked footwear used in large numbers or in sensitive areas like fragile soil terrains can lead to soil erosion. This can threaten soil fertility and lead to sedimentation and pollution of nearby streams and rivers.
Vegetation Damage Spikes can easily damage vegetative cover, including small plants and seedlings, by crushing, puncturing, or uprooting them. This can cause significant damage to plant ecosystems and, in turn, impact the entire food chain.
Wildlife Disturbance The use of spiked feet can also lead to disturbance of wildlife habitats, including bird nests and burrows. This can disrupt breeding and foraging activities and lead to stress-related diseases among animals.
Trail Erosion Hikers wearing spiked feet while using the same trails repeatedly can cause erosion and widening of the trails. This can turn established trails and paths into unsightly gullies that impact the natural beauty of the environment.

To minimize environmental damage caused by spiked feet, responsible usage is key. Avoid using these types of footwear in sensitive areas where damages are likely to occur. It is also essential to minimize repeated use of the same trails and to use them only when necessary to help preserve them. By following these guidelines, we can help protect the environment and still enjoy the benefits of spiked feet.

Personal Safety

Personal Safety is one of the most important aspects to consider when using spiked feet. While they provide better traction and stability, they also pose certain risks if not used with caution. Here are some of the potential hazards of using spiked footwear and how to avoid them:

Risk Precautions to take
Trips and falls Always be aware of your surroundings and watch your step. Avoid using spiked feet on smooth surfaces or wet areas as they may cause slips.
Foot and ankle injuries Choose spiked footwear that fit perfectly and provide good support. Avoid using them for extended periods of time or in extreme conditions.
Damage to floors and surfaces Be careful when using spiked feet indoors or on delicate surfaces such as wooden floors or carpets. Choose appropriate footwear for each environment.
Social etiquette Spiked feet may not be appropriate for all occasions, especially in formal or cultural events. Use discretion and respect the rules and traditions of each setting.

It’s also important to note that spiked feet may not be allowed in certain areas such as museums, churches or other historic sites where they may cause damage to the premises. Always check the rules and regulations of each place before using them. By taking these precautions, you can enjoy the benefits of spiked footwear while minimizing the risks.


In conclusion, it is evident that spiked feet provide a significant advantage when it comes to improving traction, stability, and grip in a variety of applications. From athletics to hiking to industrial and military use, spiked footwear has been proven to increase speed, agility, and safety in environments where traction is of utmost importance.

However, it is crucial to consider the factors before choosing the right spiked footwear. The type of spikes, the terrain, the intensity of use, and the user’s specific needs should all be taken into account to ensure optimal performance and safety. In addition, it is important to maintain and replace spiked feet as needed to ensure they perform optimally.

Despite the benefits of spiked feet, it is also essential to acknowledge the potential risks and environmental impact. Environmental damage can occur if spiked footwear is used irresponsibly, and personal safety should always be considered. Caution should be taken when using spiked footwear in areas with delicate or fragile terrain, such as on golf courses or sandy beaches.

With proper use and care, spiked feet can provide a significant advantage in a variety of applications, supporting users’ ability to navigate challenging terrain with ease while reducing the risk of injury. Whether you’re an athlete looking for an edge in competition or an industrial worker in need of increased safety and stability, spiked footwear can be a valuable tool in improving traction and staying safe in challenging environments.

Frequently Asked Questions

What makes spiked feet better than regular footwear?

Spiked feet provide better traction on a variety of surfaces, improving stability, grip, speed, and agility.

How do spikes attached to footwear work?

Spikes penetrate into the surface beneath the foot, creating a greater contact area and friction which improves grip.

What are the different types of spikes available for footwear?

The most common types of spikes are made of rubber or steel and can come in various shapes and sizes depending on the intended use and environment.

What are some applications for spiked footwear?

Spiked footwear is commonly used in athletics, hiking and mountaineering, and by industrial or military personnel needing secure footing.

What factors should be considered when choosing spiked footwear?

Some important factors to consider when choosing spiked footwear include the intended use, the environment, and the frequency of use.

Can spiked footwear be worn in wet or slippery conditions?

Yes, spiked footwear can improve grip on wet or slippery surfaces, but some designs may function better depending on the surface type.

How do you maintain and replace spiked feet?

To maintain spiked feet, it is important to clean them regularly and replace them when the spikes become worn down or damaged.

What are some risks associated with using spiked footwear?

Spiked feet can potentially damage the environment and may pose a risk of injury if not used properly or if the spikes are worn down.

What kind of spiked footwear is best for hiking and mountaineering?

Spiked hiking and mountaineering boots are usually designed with longer, more durable spikes that can better handle rough terrain and snow or ice conditions.

What are the benefits of using spiked footwear in athletic competition?

Spiked shoes can increase speed, traction, and power transfer, resulting in improved athletic performance and fewer injuries.


Eva Smith
Eva Smith
Vlogger and photographer.


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